16 Common Logical Fallacies You Must Know as an Ecommerce Expert
What is a logical fallacy?
A logical fallacy is a common mistake in reasoning that occurs when someone reaches an incorrect conclusion based on faulty assumptions or evidence. Logical fallacies can be sneaky and are often used in everyday arguments to persuade people to agree with a certain viewpoint without offering valid evidence or arguments.
15 Common Logical Fallacies
1. The Straw Man Fallacy
The straw man fallacy occurs when someone intentionally misrepresents their opponent's position, making it easier to attack the false argument rather than the true one. This fallacy is often used to make an argument seem stronger than it actually is.
2. The Bandwagon Fallacy
The bandwagon fallacy occurs when someone argues that something is true or should be done simply because a lot of people believe it or are doing it.
3. The Appeal to Authority Fallacy
The appeal to authority fallacy occurs when someone cites an authority figure to support their argument, even though the authority figure may not be an expert in the field or may have a biased opinion.
4. The False Dilemma Fallacy
The false dilemma fallacy occurs when someone presents only two options as if they are the only ones in existence. This fallacy often forces someone to choose between two extremes when other, more reasonable options may exist.
5. The Hasty Generalization Fallacy
The hasty generalization fallacy occurs when someone makes a broad conclusion based on limited or incomplete evidence, often using anecdotal evidence as support.
6. The Slothful Induction Fallacy
The slothful induction fallacy occurs when someone fails to accept a conclusion even though the evidence overwhelmingly supports it. This fallacy often results from intellectual laziness or a refusal to change one's beliefs.
7. The Correlation/Causation Fallacy
The correlation/causation fallacy occurs when someone assumes that because two things are correlated, one must cause the other. This fallacy ignores other potential causes for the correlation and may jump to conclusions without sufficient evidence.
8. The Anecdotal Evidence Fallacy
The anecdotal evidence fallacy occurs when someone uses a personal story or experience as evidence to support an argument instead of relying on data, research, or other credible sources.
9. The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy
The Texas sharpshooter fallacy occurs when someone cherry-picks information to support their argument or draws a conclusion based on a random pattern or coincidence.
10. The Middle Ground Fallacy
The middle ground fallacy occurs when someone assumes that the middle ground between two opposing viewpoints must be the correct one without considering that one side may be more accurate or valid than the other.
11. The Burden of Proof Fallacy
The burden of proof fallacy occurs when someone asserts that their opponent must disprove their argument rather than providing evidence to support it. This fallacy shifts the responsibility of proof onto the opponent rather than taking the burden upon themselves.
12. The Personal Incredulity Fallacy
The personal incredulity fallacy occurs when someone dismisses an argument simply because they find it hard to believe or understand.
13. The "No True Scotsman" Fallacy
The "no true Scotsman" fallacy occurs when someone tries to explain away someone's negative behavior by dismissing them as not actually belonging to a certain group, even though they previously met the qualifications to belong to that group.
14. The Ad Hominem Fallacy
The ad hominem fallacy occurs when someone attacks their opponent personally rather than addressing their argument directly. This fallacy is often used to distract from the actual topic at hand.
15. The Tu Quoque Fallacy
The tu quoque fallacy occurs when someone tries to justify their own negative behavior by pointing out that their opponent has done the same thing in the past. This fallacy ignores the merit of the argument and instead tries to undermine the other person's credibility.
16. The Fallacy Fallacy
The fallacy fallacy occurs when someone dismisses an argument simply because it contains a logical fallacy. This fallacy assumes that just because a fallacy exists, the entire argument is invalid, when in fact, some arguments can still carry weight even if they contain a fallacy.
Recognize Logical Fallacies
Now that you're aware of 16 common logical fallacies, it's important to recognize them when you encounter them. Being able to identify logical fallacies can help you make informed decisions and avoid being swayed by faulty arguments or false information. Take the time to examine arguments carefully and make sure they are based on sound evidence and valid reasoning.